Section 4 – Know About Employment Opportunities and Job Roles in the Media Sector


Employment Opportunities

In the Media industry there are a variety of employment opportunities that each have their advantages and disadvantages.


Full-time employment defines the minimum number of hours worked defined by one’s employers. This form of employment often comes with benefits that aren’t generally offered to other employment opportunities such as fixed holidays and guaranteed sick pay. This allows employees to plan free time and have rest days where appropriate.

Full-time workers can also qualify for advancements in their position and “climb the ladder” through promotions. These opportunities are awarded through a positive relationship between the worker and employer.

This form of employment can also provide health benefits such as free or discounted eyecare checks to ensure workers remain healthy and able to work efficiently.

Specific working hours and fixed schedules are also an advantage as they allow the employee to plan their time as changes must be agreed in advance. It allows stability and a healthy working experience as the employee does not risk unexpected obstacles or distractions.

A fixed wage also provides stability to the worker as it allows for easy budgeting and confidence in being able to meet financial commitments such as bills.

However, full-time work does have disadvantages such as potentially becoming “too comfortable” in the role which has the potential to prevent the employee discovering their other talents and wanting to further their careers.

When full-time contracts come to an end, it can be hard for an employee to find new work as their CV lacks previous employment or a range of skills built through various experiences.

A full-time employee can also find themselves out of the routine of job hunting and can feel a lack in confidence and motivation to search for new employment.



Part time work defines work defines a form of employment that  works less hours than full-time. It generally works in shifts or blocks.

An advantage of part-time work is the flexibility as it allows time for other commitments such as illness, hobbies, education and second jobs.

It also allows workers choice in their working hours and in busy periods their income can increase by taking on extra hours.

Part-time positions typically are generic, such as waitresses, so workers can swap shifts or fill in for other workers that are unwell. This can increase their earnings, but also works as a disadvantage as part-time workers normally aren’t paid when they are unwell.

Part-time work is also not always guaranteed regularly. For example if the workplace isn’t busy less staff will be required.



Freelance workers are paid per each hour worked. For example, performers and writers are freelance workers.

The biggest advantage of freelance work is the control the worker has over their job. It allows them to choose their hours and have complete flexibility. It also allows them to choose how they work and what clients or customers they serve. It is also a fully self-profitable role which means earnings go soley to the owner.

Freelance work, however, is not always guaranteed to be steady and thus income can be unreliable. Workers can face dips in their hours during certain times of year or if the lines between personal and professional life become too blurred, meaning time is limited to certain aspects of the worker’s life.



Permanent employment is work in which employees are paid directly by an employer and are guaranteed work. They are not bound by time-restricted contracts.

This form of employment has similar advantages and disadvantages of full-time work, however the main advantages that permanent employment offers are health benefits such as premium health and life insurance. Strong retirement options such as contribution from employers to their pension are also a great advantage on top of no fear on either parties behalf that the position has a termination date.

Although employment is always guaranteed for the employee, they can risk a reduction in their income if the company changes. This doesn’t provide security to the employee.

An employee’s ability to “climb the ladder” is also compromised in this form of work as employers are likely to have hired the worker for their initial set of skills that are always necessary. The employee doesn’t need to enhance their skills to benefit the company which can be disheartening.



Temporary work is work that is limited to a time period and is generally contracted.

Temporary positions can provide income while a worker looks for a more permanent position and can also work to fill in a CV or gain skills. This employment can also be a probationary period for workers and employers and can lead to other opportunities within the company.

Temporary jobs, however, can be difficult as they generally last no more than a couple of months and can be “fillers” for employers such as someone to take over maternity leave. A worker can get their hopes up hoping their successful temporary position can get their foot in the door, but in most cases this isn’t necessary or beneficial to the company.


Entry Routes into The Media

The media industry is notoriously challenging to get into as it’s a very “who you know, not what you know” sector. One must be very creative and talented to become successful in this industry and this can be achieved in multiple ways.

Networking is a way of getting one’s foot in the door of the industry by making their face known by those already in it.

This industry, however, is very competitive so it can sometimes feel like a race to grab every and any opportunity that arises. This can be achieved by easier methods such as voluntary work or work experience, as a lot of companies are happy to have people willing to work for free as it doesn’t impact their company greatly and these forms of workers are easy to let go if necessary.

Those wanting a role in the media industry could consider creating a personal website or blog to publicise and promote their portfolio. The right person could come across it at the right time and provide great opportunities.


Job Roles

Most job roles in the media sector require a range of skills, the most notable being creative ability.

Some creative job roles require the interconnection of technical and editorial skills. For example, a screenwriter’s process involves consideration to the technicians and editors that will be handed the scripts secondly. When writing, the writer considers how the scenes will be filmed and all aspects of mis-en-scene and then this must be weighed against the abilities the post-production team has to create the screenwriter’s vision successfully.

Administrative roles also marry with financial roles successfully. Examples of this include members of a theatre’s administration team. This role requires administrative skills such as punctuality, organisation and strong communication abilities alongside mathematical and systematical skills that allow figures and statistics to be considered in making decisions for the theatre company.


Professional Career Development

Training on the job and self-training are crucial elements to any role within the media industry as it’s a fast-paced and ever-evolving sector. This means skills can outdate and in order to be successful, one must keep updating their skills. This can cause a great workload for many workers and can prove difficult.

Professional Behaviour

In order to be successful there are a number of crucial professional qualities individuals are expected to show.

The first being strong self-presentation. First impressions mean everything in this industry so it is expected that individuals that want to succeed will present themselves in the appropriate manner.
In my college and professional career I have always maintained appropriate self-presentation. At college I abide by my college’s moral codes by ensuring my attire is not revealing or offensive, however I do indulge in my college’s acceptance of individuality and wear my facial piercings and dreadlocks freely.
However, in my professional career, I must ensure don’t allow too much of a balance between what I want to wear and what I have to wear. For example, in my theatre rehearsals I am expected to wear appropriate attire that involves my “blacks” (all-black work-out clothing) with my hair slicked away from my face and strictly no make up or jewellery. This not only serves a practical purpose, but it also allows uniformity in the work space which enhances our ability to feel less like ourselves so we can act and perform better as different characters.

The second professional quality I utilise in my career is my commitment ability which I also find interconnects with my time-management abilities. I have found that, in order to commit to anything in my career, I must be able to pace myself and manage my time effectively.



Section 3 – Regulation of the Media Sector


– A rule or directive made and maintained by an authority


The media industry in the UK is heavily regulated which means it is controlled by a strict set of rules.


The BBFC (British Board of Film Classification) are the board responsible for regulation in the film and cinema sectors. They award BBFC Age Ratings certificates that indicate what audience is appropriate for each film and cinema text.

91sj2ptrxyl-_sl1500_In 2011, the BBFC came underfire for rating “The Woman In Black” as a 12A which means it’s appropriate for children aged 12 and over, and children aged under 12 must be accompanied by an adult. The Woman In Black was the most complained about film of all time with 134 complaints in total being received by BBFC.

As a result of this, the BBFC made a regulatory decision to offer the creators of the text two options; the first was a rating of 15 without cuts being made to the film, and the second was the option to cut certain scenes to maintain the 12A certificate.
I believe these options were given with the legal constraints of The Obscene Publications Act in the minds of the BBFC. The Woman in Black featured “dark and unsettling” scenes which were not deemed appropriate for 12 year old children. In regards to this decision, I believe it was in the commercial interests of the film’s creators to cut out the scenes to gain the broadest audience they could for the largest financial yield.



PEGI (Pan European Game Information) is responsible for the regulation of the games sector in Europe.

They regulate games texts in a similar way to the BBFC in that they award PEGI Ratings age certificates to indicate what audience they determine is appropriate for each game.

In 2011, PEGI were challenged by the public on their age rating of the WII game “WeDare”. WeDare is a party game that faced initial dispute over the appropriate PEGI rating due to it’s “mild sexual innuendo”, but overall was awarded a PEGI 12 rating and a “Parental Guidance Advised” sticker to ensure the age rating was not undermined.screenshots_wedare12
On face-value, WeDare is a silly animated game that features small challenges such as flying like a bird through the movement of your body and is inarguable not inappropriate for 12 year olds on the ethical grounds of one’s safety and the legal constraints of corruption of one’s mind, however it was advertised in a very different way.


The YouTube advertisement for WeDare featured adults in work attire using the Wii remote to represent falick objects and the positioning of the players was sexually suggestive and highly inappropriate for children.

PEGI faced their own legal constraints in this case as 8.3/i of their Codes of Conduct states “An advertisement shall accurately reflect the nature and content of the product it represents”, however WeDare publishers argued that it was not misleading advertising as “the off-screen game play can be whatever you want it to be” and the gameplay featured in the advertisement does not specify how the game should be played.

PEGI considered the commercial and financial interests of all parties and concluded that WeDare could maintain their PEGI 12 rating so long as the online advertisement was taken down immediately as “an imperative first measure”. I believe this was a sensible and wise decision and it didn’t compromise the aims and success of PEGI or WeDare.



PCC (Press Complaints Commission (recently replaced by Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO) is the regulating board for the newspaper and magazine sector in the UK.

They regulate under the Editor’s Code of Practice which contains the ethical and legal constraints they, and all press companies, must abide by.

z0m5t9ikIn 2010, Dannii Minogue complained to the PCC in regards to a Daily Record article announcing her pregnancy before her 12-week scan. This was a breach of Clause 3 (Privacy) of the Editors’ Code of Practice as the newspaper were aware that she had not yet had her scan and thus the complaint was upheld. PCC deemed the publication of the story as “a gross intrusion into her private life”, however the newspaper article argued that the news of the pregnancy was already public domain before the story was published.

PCC stated in their adjudication that there was no excuse for the publication of this news as it is “a matter of common sense [that] newspapers and magazines should not reveal pregnancy before the 12-week scan” and they claim they “had no hesitation in upholding the complaint”.

In my opinion, PCC could also have considered the media legal constraints in this case such as the Defamation Act of 2003 which allows Minogue to protect her reputation. This could have strengthened their argument and further justified their decision to uphold the complaint as Daily Record was spreading already-public news.



asa-logo-april-border-20131ASA (Advertising Standards Association) are the regulators for the advertising sector in the UK.

They enforce Advertising Codes which are a set of rules all advertisements must consider and abide by.

To name one example of ASA regulation, in 1996, the ASA received 50 complaints regarding fashion company Benneton’s new poster advertising campaign. The poster advert featured three hearts with “black, white, yellow” written beneath.17benetton3

Benetton began an advertising campaign called “The United Colours of Benetton” in 1984 which featured models of different races wearing their products. In 1984, the campaign evolved into “The United Countries of Benetton” and involved the use of country flags. Over the years, the campaign continued to evolve and feature cultural and racial diversity.

Eventually Benetton’s campaign grew so large that they had a stable platform of wealth and support for their company and their controversial ideologies. However, Benetton’s campaign began to follow a powerful and more raw path, beginning to feature images of breastfeeding, dead bodies, victims of HIV and prisoners on Death Row.

Throughout their campaigns the ASA received numerous complaints, but I believe their understanding of Benetton’s intentions and messages outweighed their moral and legal constraints which states the adverts should have been removed.



OFCOM (The Office of Communications) is the regulation authority for broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries in the UK.

ofcom_publication_logo_rgbThey regulate all TV and Radio texts under their Broadcasting Codes which are the ethical and legal constraints of which all TV and Radio texts should be created under.

In 2008, BBC Radio 2 broadcasted the Russell Brand show that breached the “generally accepted standards” and “adequate protection for members of the public from unwarranted infringements of privacy” sections of the Broadcasting Code. The BBC received 45,000 complaints following the “gratuitously offensive, humiliating and demeaning” prank phone calls performed by Jonathan Ross and Russell Brand to actor Andrew Sachs. These prank calls involved lewd messages claiming Russell had slept with Sachs’ granddaughter and Ofcom fined the BBC £15,000. Ofcom said the scale of the fine “reflects the extraordinary nature and seriousness of the BBCs failures and the resulting breaches of the code”.robr

I believe this was an appropriate response by Ofcom as they strongly maintained their ethical and legal binds under the Broadcasting Codes and demonstrated the importance of them not only as an example to the BBC, but to the public. This played in the commercial interests of Ofcom and may have enhanced their reliability and image to the public, allowing them to be regarded as a strong and responsible company with the public’s interests at heart.
However, as mentioned under Structure and Ownership, the BBC yield millions every year and could easily afford the fine without any issue and Brand later took to Twitter to mock the fine by saying he’ll “put BBC fine on [his] expense account”. This, to me, demonstrates that the BBC have such high reputation and power that they can commit whatever acts they please without fear, as no fine or complaints can affect them.


Regulations Within My Own Media Texts


Under the Structure and Ownership section I mentioned that I faced ethical and legal constraints when creating my advert. Amongst these constraints I also had to consider the ASA’s regulatory codes to ensure my advert could be successful. I insured that my advert abides by all codes including Code 03 – Misleading Advertising. To ensure I was promoting the product realistically within my majestic advert I used multiple shots of the protagonist using the product correctly. The setting and post-production such as the music used enhanced the theme of the scent and did not give any untrue illusions about the purpose or properties of the product.





Section 2 – The Ethical and Legal Constraints Within the Media Sector

Ethical and Legal Constraints


In the UK there are ethical and legal constraints within the media sector. The ethical constraints are moral principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the conduction of an activity, and the legal constraints are where people or companies consider the potential laws which affect their industries and whether or not they’re breaking the law.

These constrains mean that producers of media texts do not have free reign over what they can create.

Ethical Constraints

Ethical constrains are moral principles that govern the behaviour and conduction of the media texts.

The producers of media texts also have certain ethical considerations when creating their texts; plagiarism, bias and company guidelines.

Plagiarism is the act of taking the ideas or work of someone else to pass them off as one’s own. An example of plagiarism is “Martian” directed by Ridley Scott. Mikhail Raskhodnikov, a Russian screenwriter, filed a claim in a Moscow court, claiming the idea for the film was stolen from him. 6360_4722The screenwriter alleged that his story was written long before the US author’s version and demanded the copyrights for the 2015 film.

Similarly, another example of plagiarism in the media industry is the book and film The Da Vinci Code. In 1982, authors Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln published “The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail”, a book that maintained the hypothesis that Jesus Christ married Mary Magdelene and had children and are the root of a sacred bloodline that is told to have emigrated through generations to what is now known as Southern France.davincicodeholybloodholygrail

The Da Vinci Code is a conspiracy fiction novel written by Dan Brown which follows the same plotline as The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail and thus Baigent and Leigh attempted to sue Random House, Brown’s publisher, for plagarism in 2005. Unfortunately the case was lost and was ruled as a “wasted case” due to Baigent and Leigh’s loose and vague evidence.


Bias is a term that refers to prejudice against an individual or group in an unfair way.

The Sun, a UK newspaper, is notorious for right-wing political bias in their newspapers. One example of their bias is in the front covers pictured below.

On the left is a front cover featuring Liberal Democrat Party leader Ed Miliband eating a bacon sandwich. The Sun chose this embarrassing photo to damage the reputation of Miliband and the slanderous line “This is the pig ear Ed made of his helpless sarnie, in 48 hours he could be doing the same to Britain” depicts Miliband as useless and unfit to have power over Britain in the same way he is seemingly incapable of eating his sandwich.

On the right is an image of David Cameron’s face edited in the style of a war poster beneath the captions “In Cameron we trust” and “Our only hope”. This cover paints Cameron as a heavenly and heroic leader that Britain needs to defeat the metaphorical wars (challenges) Britain could potentially face.

These two covers demonstrate The Sun’s methods of promoting their conservative ideologies onto the public and show no evidence of balanced or fair information in their papers.


Company guidelines refer to strict rules for companies that state what they are and aren’t allowed to do.

The BBC’s Principles part 3.2.3 states that they “must not knowingly mislead its audiences”, however in 2011 it was found that their documentary series “Frozen Planet” featured polar bears filmed in a Dutch zoo, despite the audience being led to believe that the show was filmed in the Arctic.article-2073024-0f2551d900000578-18_634x357

BBC said “we never claim that such sequences were shot in the actual location depicted in the film” and “it can be editorially and ethically justified to use captive animals” to justify themselves against their negative responses. It could also be argued that the BBC would not be enriching the public with the educational and entertaining scenes included and promised in their mission statement.


Legal Constraints

Legal constraints mean that the law must be considered to ensure no laws are broken whilst creating the texts.

Legal considerations such as Defamation Act 2003, Privacy Law, Obscene Publications Act 1959 and Copyright much be followed by producers when making their media texts.

Daily-Mirror-Logo-1024x386The Defamation Act of 2003 provides the ability to protect one’s reputation. In 2012, Frankie Boyle successfully won a legal case under this act against the Daily Mirror for a printed form of defamation known as “libel”. The Daily Mirror libelled Boyle as “racist” after he made a joke referring to immigration containing a racial slur on Mock The Week.


Boyle, however, is known for his controversial but weighted humour, and thus The Daily Mirror perhaps should have considered there was no offence intended with his joke that was directly quoted from the context in which Mock The Week was discussing.

jemima-khan-and-russell-brandOther successful libel cases against newspapers include Russel Brand V Sun on Sunday in 2013, in which Sun on Sunday falsely accused Brand of cheating on his girlfriend in a 3-page spread in their newspaper. Brand received a substantial amount in damages along with a formal apology and withdrawal of the article from Sun on Sunday’s website.


Copyright refers to the exclusive rights the creator of an original work has for its use and distribution.

17028865“Ice Ice Baby” by Vanilla Ice (1989) is an example of copyright as it copies Queen and David Bowie’s song “Under Pressure” 8 years previous.

Vanilla Ice used Under Pressure’s bass line and hook and Queen and Bowie’s representative’s threatened a copyright infringement law suit against him, however the case was settled outside of court and Queen and Bowie were awarded the songwriting credits for Ice Ice Baby.


In 2013, a similar case occurred in which Robin Thicke and Pharrell Williams were taken to court for copying Marvin Gaye’s 1977 song “Got To Give It Up” with their own song “Blurred Lines”.

The jury concluded that there were 8 distinct elements that were similar in each piece and thus deceased Gaye’s family were awarded $7.4M on copyright infringement grounds.


Privacy laws regulate the use of personal information about individuals. The UK maintains a data protection legislation which protects the rights of individuals and ensures that their personal information remains private and secure.charlotte-church-007

53636607_012022821-1In 2012, Charlotte Church was awarded £600,000 in damages from News of the World newspaper after she and her family’s voicemails were hacked. This had been occurring since Charlotte was merely 16 years old and involved the publishing information about Charlotte’s teenage lovelife and her self-harm and suicide attempts. Metropolitan Police found that there were at least 829 victims of the same illegal acts by News of The World and thus the newspaper closed down in 2011 after 168 years of print.

The Obscene Publications Act of 1959 defines obscenity as something that “if taken as a whole, such as to tend to deprave and corrupt persons who are likely to have regard to all relevant circumstances, to read, see or hear the matter contained or embodied in it”. Things regarded as obscene or in “bad taste” are offensive or go against the accepted standards of morality and decency.


By the late 1970s, VHS tapes and players became available to most households and they were mostly always unregulated. This sparked the rise in “80s Video Nasties” which were unregulated, horrific films such as “I Spit On Your Grave” and “Driller Killer”.human-centipede-2-cover

However, under the enforcement of the Obscene Publications Act in more recent years, 39 films have been successfully prosecuted and others, such as “The Human Centipede 2” have had obscene scenes cut in order to be approved by the BBFC (British Board of Film Classification).


My Own Ethical and Legal Constraints


In the creation of my own media texts, I have encountered ethical and legal constraints. I created a TV advert for a perfume called “The Story of Lily” which was heavily inspired by “Nina Ricci’s L’Elixir” perfume adverts. I used themes featured in the Nina Ricci advert such as the whimsical setting and female actress, however I remained aware of the complications of potential plagiarism and only allowed the Nina Ricci advert to inspire my work and not influence it.
However, I did use Anastasia’s “Once Upon A December” song in my advert, of which I did not gain permission from the owners. This was an act of copyright infringement, however I ensured that my use of the song was for personal and private use which abides by YouTube’s Fair Use Policy that the owner consented to upon uploading the song.







Task 1 – Written Report

Task One – Written Report

To research my programme I could undertake quantitative and qualitative research. Research is a crucial element in creating a product as it provides an insight into a potential target audience so their needs can be met.

Quantitive Research

Quantitative research is statistical research that collects information in mathematical forms such as polls and graphs.

For my programme I could undertake quantitative research by researching similar and existing products in the industry. I could research into things such as box office statistics (how much money has been made), programme website hits and programme ratings (the estimated audience profiles and size of a similar product).

From the above research I can create graphs and charts that can allow me to have a visual guide that can enhance my product by showing my research results clearly.

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research is exploratory research and is essentially the opposite of quantitative research. It contains less statistics and provides room for opinions and hypotheses.

Forms of qualitative research I could undertake could include reviews (film, game, etc) focus groups and face-to-face interviews.

Reviews, particularly of films, would be particularly useful when researching for my product. A review, for example, of a Tarantino film would allow me to gauge an audience’s values and attitudes towards his products.

A questionnaire could contain a mixture of both quantitative and qualitative research. The qualitative research could be undertaken using open questions that require more than a one-worded or “yes or no” answer.
These questions allow the answerers to give detailed answers and can include their opinions and desires.

Questionnaires are a form of primary research as it obtains new information that is researched by me/the company and it is original.

In addition to questionnaires, interviews and observations are other forms of primary research. Others include focus groups or the participation in internet forums.

Secondary research is information gained from other sources and thus is the opposite of primary research. This form of research uses other people or organisation’s research and can be found in journals, books, internet or interviews governed by other people.

There are advantages and disadvantages of both primary and secondary research.

Advantages of primary research include it being current/up to date, the ability to focus on specific issues through personalised questionnaires of focus groups, and it is also protected as it’s typically concealed for the private use of the company.

However, in comparison to secondary research that is quick and inexpensive, it is often more time consuming and expensive as the costs of conducting and preparing the research can be quite high.

In addition to being easy and low-cost, secondary research can also aid in the clarification of primary research being learned and it’s often used for this purpose prior to large-scale primary research.

Audience research is essential as it helps to find out  the age, behaviours and attitudes of the audience so we can gauge how likely they are to purchase or enjoy the product.

Market research is conducted to look at current competition in existing products and is  how the audience will be reached. Market research identifies competition and the ways in which the product should be advertised. It also draws comparison between itself and existing products on the market.

Production research is conducted to look at the viability (how successfully the product will be), logistics and expenses of the product.

Questionnaires – What do we need to find out?

What do you need in order to launch your celebrity news channel?

  • Who are my target audience?
  • What do they need?
  • What are their wants?
  • Why they will need/want my product and services?
  • Who will be our competitors?
  • What can I do to make my product and service attractive/creative?
  • What are rules and regulations in my target market and platforms?
  • How will you let your customers know you’ll be there?
  • How will you tell potential customers what you sell, where, when and at what price?


How old are you?

What words do you associate most with celebrity news source?

Enticing Interesting Gossip Drama Intrusive Etc

What would you like to see on a celebrity news channel?

What are your current sources for celebrity news? Why?

Youtube: Television: Facebook (social media): Newspapers/magazine

Section 1 – Understand Structure and Ownership

Understanding Structure and Ownership


Media Sectors in the UK

In the UK, there are multiple media sectors including films, advertisement, television and the Press.

Another of these sectors is radio, which holds around 600 licensed stations and thousands of employment opportunities in the UK. r299297_12948171
Typical job roles in the radio industry include presenters, producers and journalists. Major sectors in the radio industry include Heart FM, Capital FM, and the BBC.

The radio industry is one of the most traditional forms of entertainment in the modern day, however with the creation of the internet, this robust industry faces the challenge of under 30s (radio’s general demographic) using more online services for entertainment.

The radio industry asks whether listeners aged 15-24 might revert to more traditional listening habits as they age, as they have found that only 71% of listeners are 15-24, whereas listeners above this age account for 89% of listeners. This is a challenge to the radio industry, however, as the dominance of radio in cars is decreasing as newer technology such as Apple Car Play and AUX features become installed in the latest cars –a feature that appeals to many young people.

Moreover, the growth of digital stations offering more choice and diversity to cater to a variety of tastes may be a saviour for the radio industry. In 2016, more national radio stations were launched which married successfully with Radioplayer, to provide radio online and in smartphone apps which can be played anywhere there’s a connection to the internet – another feature popular with young people.


Private and Public Sector Owned Media

There are two types of sector-owned media; private and public.

Private, in the context of media, means a company is owned privately and may have shareholders. It also means this company will seek to make profit.

In contrast, public, in this context, means the companies are owned by the public and do not have shareholders. It also means any form of profit will be invested back into the company.


Conglomerates, Multinationals, Mergers and Takeovers

In the UK today, there are many large companies that operate such as conglomerates, multinationals, mergers and takeovers.


A media conglomerate is a group or institution that owns many companies such as radio, television and films. Examples include Sony or the news corporations 20th Century Fox and Sky.


An example of a multinational company would be Coca Cola, as they are a company that is based and has headquarters in one country, but operates globally.

Mergers is the term referred to when a large company takes over or merges with another company. In equal partnership, the companies join


and form a new company.

Takeovers refers to one company taking a controlling stake in another and then owning the smaller company.

An example of mergers and takeovers would be Time Warner, who own Warner Brothers, DC Comics, HBO and Time Cinema, to name a few. These are also examples that show how Time Warner is a cross-media ownership, meaning they own media in different sectors.


Cross-Media Ownership

In the UK, our government enforces Cross-media Ownership Rules. This is a form of regulation that sets rules on what media companies can own.

file-54133139For example, the company News Corporation owns Fox, Sky and The Sun, which means they can only own 20% of the company ITV. This regulation prevents competition as it prevents companies owning too much, and in turn, allows for balanced content to be produced. If, for example, News Corporation was allowed to own more media, the UK would only receive their messages which would be biased and unfair to other companies with different ideologies.


Independent Media

Independent Media refers to the opposite of Cross-Media Ownership; any form of media outside of the control of large companies or the government.indie15

Examples of independent media are independent or “indie” films. These films are produced outside of the major film studio system with much lower budgets. These films also allow the creator’s personal artistic vision to be realised, which is a key ingredient in the definition of any independent media. Independent films are generally screened locally or at film festivals and rarely reach “the big screen” or DVD releases.


New technology has made it easier for film makers to make films today. Cameras and recording equipment are becoming more affordable and the internet has

played a major part in educating filmmakers and allowing them to use their own personal computers and cheap/free software in post-production of their films. There are also many ways to access free or affordable tutorials online to help filmmakers succeed. This new, low-budget technology has changed and revolutionised the art of filmmaking, allowing anyone to take part.


British Broadcasting Company (BBC)

bbc-logo-designThe BBC (British Broadcasting Company) is a British public service broadcaster, however it also owns the channels BBC America and BBC World that have a global reach. The BBC holds the mission statement “To enrich people’s lives with programmes and services that: inform, educate and entertain”.

The BBC is funded by the public through our TV licences. This means the BBC has a duty to the public and must be above other similar companies that the public do not have to pay for.

The BBC TV licence costs £147 per year and causes controversy.

On the one hand, the licence fee allows for the BBC to fulfil their mission statement. To inform and educate, the BBC provides a reliable and unbiased source for news and information. To entertain, it allows for full programmes to be played without the interruption of advertisements and it also broadcasts a variety of programmes from CBBC (Children’s British Broadcasting Company) to BBC Parliament. The BBC caters for all and acts as a generalist station for the British Public.
In addition, the licence fee also funds the production of BBC radio stations, BBC iPlayer and the festival Radio 1’s Big Weekend, to name a few, which are


strong examples of how BBC funding has allowed BBC services to adapt to the modern world and provide alternative entertainment options outside of television.

On the other hand, there are many cases against the licence fee.
The main argument is that the licence fees are not necessary. Many BBC employees have admitted that the BBC has an extortionate amount of funding and heavily encourages them to claim back any form of expenses that occur while working for them, be it personal or relevant. One anonymous worker revealed that he was threatened with losing his job for not submitting enough to expenses.


Another argument is that the British public are used to TV advertisements, and can find them convenient at times. In addition, advertisements can be avoided using Sky+ features that allow you to skip them.
It is also argued that there is now a rise in specialist channels such as MTV and Comedy Central to cater to a variety of TV habits, so the BBC isn’t as unique in its acting as a generalist station.
People also argue that the licence is simply not affordable, or that it’s unfair to have to pay it if they don’t use any of the BBCs services.


(PowerPoint Notes) Unit 36 – Interview Techniques

Different interview styles:

  • Direct interviews- overt interviews
  • Covert interviews/ footage
  • Ambush interviews
  • Talking Heads
  • Vox Pops
  • Email/ phone interviews- voice over/ text only- audio/visual limitations.


Types of questions:

  • Open questions
  • Closed questions
  • Leading questions
  • Rising and falling Intonation
  • Simple/ direct question phrasing
  • Soft questions
  • Follow up questions
  • Voice/tone/register
  • Body language- listening, eye contact, responding to interviewee
  • Think about how to structure your interview- which questions do you ask? Which order do you ask the questions in? How do you begin and end the interview? Do you ask follow up questions?


Purposes of interviews:

  • Inform the audience
  • Educate?
  • Entertain
  • Persuade/ promote
  • Motivate emotional effect on the audience- charities?
  • Research


How to conduct an interview:

  • Ensure your questions are appropriate
  • Research your subject before conducting the interview
  • Prepare your questions and practice
  • Make your interviewee feel relaxed
  • Start off with easy questions- soft questions
  • Make sure your questions reflect the focus of the interview
  • Keep your questions on topic
  • Make the phrasing of your questions clear
  • Avoid too much bias in your question
  • Use open questions-Don’t ask closed questions
  • Give people time to answer
  • Your questions should be accurate
  • Record your interview on a camera in suitable locations
  • Keep eye contact
  • Meet somewhere the interviewee will feel comfortable
  • Make sure the interview is held in a suitable and reasonably quiet place.
  • Ensure that your questions are specific to the different people you are interviewing.


Issues with interviewing

  • Bias and objectivity- core component for factual programming including news programming and documentaries.
  • The royal charter ensures that the BBC news reporting must be fair and objective.
  • This is not always the case for all news- especially in US.
  • Fox news (owned by Rupert Murdoch- Sky) motto is “Fair and Balanced” the interview and news feature process is anything but.
  • Libel and Defamation-Collectively known as defamation, libel and slander are civil wrongs that harm a reputation; decrease respect, regard, or confidence; or induce disparaging, hostile, or disagreeable opinions or feelings against an individual or entity. The injury to one’s good name or reputation is affected through written or spoken words or visual images.


Observation Task – Interview Techniques


You are to watch a selection of interviews, observing the techniques used and their implementation. You are to then complete the form below for each example.

Interview: Ali G interview – Parkinson – BBC

Number of interviewers: 1

Number of Interviewees: 1

Who was in control of the interview?

Ali G (interviewee)

Describe the vocal style of the interviewer:
Passive, polite and respectful. Not invasive or controlling. Relaxed. This gave Ali G permission to continue with this loud persona as he received no change or negativity in Parkinson’s reactions.

What was the impact on the interviewee?

Gave direction to the conversation.

Describe the body language of the interviewer:

Crossed arms (closed off), reserved, allowing interviewee to take lead. Uninvasive.

Describe the body language of the interviewee:

Confident, open, range of facial expressions and sexual gestures

What is the nature of the interview? (E.g. serious, funny, light-hearted, adult…)

Humorous, light-hearted, adult

What time of day is the interview suitable for?
Late evening (after watershed/9pm)

Interview: David Blaine and Eamonn Holmes on GMTV

Number of interviewers: 1

Number of Interviewees: 1

Who was in control of the interview?

Eamonn Holmes

Describe the vocal style of the interviewer:
Friendly, non-judgemental, open, inviting, patronising

What was the impact on the interviewee?

Not impacted or influenced

Describe the body language of the interviewer:

Inviting, positive to begin with, closing and shutting off as the interview progressed

Describe the body language of the interviewee:

Very still, closed

What is the nature of the interview? (E.g. serious, funny, light-hearted, adult…)

Intended to be serious and informative

What time of day is the interview suitable for?
Daytime – morning (breakfast)


Interview: Peter Andre Breaks Down on TV While Talking About His Kids – Sky News

Number of interviewers: 1

Number of Interviewees: 1

Who was in control of the interview?

Peter Andre took control throughout the interview

Describe the vocal style of the interviewer:
Professional, slightly defensive

What was the impact on the interviewee?

The topic of the interview influenced Peter. He wasn’t heavily influenced by the vocal style of the interviewer.

Describe the body language of the interviewer:

Professional, engaged, relaxed

Describe the body language of the interviewee:

Initially passive and relaxed, then became passionate and aggressive, angry

What is the nature of the interview? (E.g. serious, funny, light-hearted, adult…)


What time of day is the interview suitable for?
Daytime – morning (breakfast)

Task 1 – Skim, Scan and Detail reading

Crisis in Effectiveness

SKIM – Describe the article in as much detail as you can after skim reading

Use of humour in advertisements

Advertising used as a form of persuasion to purchase products

SCAN – Describe what you think are the three key points are scan reading

  • Humour is a great technique in advertising
  • Advertising is evolving
  • New technology means new opportunities and interactive advertisements

DETAIL – Now that you have read the article in detail, explain what the article is about

The article is about the crisis that is the effectiveness of advertising and discusses how and where advertising has failed and what techniques and technology can be used to improve the effectiveness of advertising, thus averting the crisis.
The article discusses the use of humour in depth and its effectiveness.
Towards the end of the article the writer discusses the use of technology such as TV and broadband to create successful, interactive advertisements and compares these to less successful advertisements from the early 1990s.

Messages and Meanings

SKIM – Describe the article in as much detail as you can after skim reading

Being lower class was celebrated and women had lower roles and reputation than men

SCAN – Describe what you think are the three key points are scan reading

Women were viewed as sexual objects rather than people of purpose.

Blonde hair appealed more to men than other hair colours. Women that were brunette, for example, would be used for more aspirational advertisements

Using food as a substitute for the male body was used as a seductive form of advertising

DETAIL – Now that you have read the article in detail, explain what the article is about

The article discusses the use of women in advertising and its evolution. It describes women as being either domestic housewives or sexual objects (whores). Towards the end of the article it explains that women’s roles were becoming more powerful and questions why advertisers still maintain the traditional and dated stereotypes.

Task 4 – Evaluation/Reflection

Effectiveness – What problems did you come across and how did you solve them? What could be improved?

While creating my packaging I encountered some problems. The most notable problem was my inexperience and lack of Photoshop and InDesign skills. To resolve these issues I worked on small practice tasks such as the “Layer Mask” task that can be found under the “‘Delish’ Packaging Project” category on this blog. This task helped me to famscreen-shot-2016-10-03-at-11-29-29iliarise myself with the layout of Photoshop and the types of tools available.

My designs, as a result of my amateur skills, had to remain very simplistic. However, I believe this gave my designs a “less is more” style and worked effectively.

Response to Feedback – What did audiences think of your work?

To ensure my product remained effective and catered to the needs and desires of the client, I reached out to my peers and tutor for feedback.

My peers commented on my simplistic designs and encouraged me to expand them and create a more complex final product. My most complex and effective design is my hand drawn/watercolour inspired packaging. I used images of lemons and thyme which correlate with the flavour of the product and filled empty spaces effectively without overpowering the packaging. My tutor said my design was “very fresh” and  complimented the fresh flavour of the product.

Technical competence/Creative Ability – How well did you do? What were your technical skills like? How creative do you think you were?

Creatively, I believe I have a strong ability as my initial sketches were complex and effective ideas inspired by the Artisan catalogue as per the recommendation of the client. In the catalogue I found two main designs that I was inspired by.

The first design is on a bottle of flavoured gin. I really liked the hand-drawn/painted element of the design and the minimal use of the colours yellow and green which not only complimeScreen Shot 2017-01-16 at 11.28.03.pngnted the overall design, but also gave an indication of the subtle flavours that the ingredients  of elderflower and cucumber have.

The second design I liked was a label for Sunny Lemons. Similarly to the gin label design, the Sunny Lemons design used the same colours (yellow and green) but in differe228e0e37f777f1d20ee0d4246b795626.jpgnt ways to create different effects. This design used variations of the colours and a watercolour/painted style to add depth and realism. I took inspiration from the white text box with slight opacity and the text over the top and used this in my own packaging
for my art-based packaging. I found using a fully opaque white text box was too abrasive and didn’t fit into the overall aesthetic of my packaging design.
I found using the ruler tool in Photoshop helped me greatly and allowed me to place text boxes and images in effective areas of the product. The ruler and text box tools also created neat images and allowed my design to remain uniform, tidy and professional.

Finished Product – Why did you construct the print product the way you did? How do you think it looks technically (skills in software)? What is visually pleasing about it?

My graphics and photography based designs, I believe, were poor and too simplistic. However, I could have improved these designs by adding features such as extra images or a variation in the layouts to add something unique to each design.

I do believe, however, my photography-based design could have been enhanced as the initial idea was to have imagesp179ii63n01hmv1guc1k5djcsnnbp of the place in which the ingredients were produced or harvested (Cornwall – Cornish Sea Salt) which I have seen in the existing industry with products such as Cornish Fairings (pictured left). I could perhaps have added an effect over the background
image, such as manipulating the opacity or intensity of the colours, to blend it effectively with the softer text boxes and fonts I used.


Compare – How does your print product compare to those existing in the industry today or from the past? How does it compare with your original intentions?

Screen Shot 2017-01-23 at 11.11.03.png









My product can be compared to the existing Delish packaging (pictured above). My packaging is much lighter compared to the existing packaging and I prefer my use of pastel colours and images of the ingredients. I used similar language in the description of my products and the existing packaging also showed me vital features that should be on my packaging such as the weight and recyclable information. One feature that I was inspired by was the use of a faded design on the orange panels of the existing Delish packaging.